However, the results also show that participants were not against the idea of intercultural communication itself, as they conceded that such communication would be important to their future careers. It is also clear that to improve their intercultural preparation, which they perceived to be currently inadequate, some kind of intervention may be needed, as it is unlikely that, left to their own devices, they would be availing themselves of opportunities on campus to equip themselves with knowledge and skills in intercultural communication.
Networks and outgroup communication competence Intracultural versus intercultural networks Acculturation and adjustment[ edit ] Communication acculturation This theory attempts to portray "cross-cultural adaptation as a collaborative effort in which a stranger and the receiving environment are engaged in a joint effort.
Intercultural communication problem through ethnocentrismdevianceand alienation states Assimilation and adaption are not permanent outcomes of the adaption process; rather, they are temporary outcomes of the communication process between hosts and immigrants. Assimilation can be either forced or done voluntarily depending on situations and conditions.
Regardless of the situation or the condition it is very rare to see a minority group replace and or even forget their previous cultural practices.
Hajda, a representative theorist and researcher of social alienation says: Each variable has a subset of more specific hard-type more tangible and soft-type more intangible sub-variables: D1 - Distance of the Self.
Defined by D1A - Hard Distances: D3A core values, core beliefs, ideologies, world-views hard variables and D3B peripheral attitudes and beliefs soft variables D4 - Referential distance personal history ; D4A - experience with external world objects, physical experiences hard variables ; D4B internal sensations world, emotional past and present soft variables Each of these "Distances Factor" can be determined by means of observation, psychometric measurements, non verbal content-analysis and verbal content-analysis.
Other theories[ edit ] Meaning of meanings theory — "A misunderstanding takes place when people assume a word has a direct connection with its referent. A common past reduces misunderstanding. Definition, metaphor, feedforward, and Basic English are partial linguistic remedies for a lack of shared experience.
Individuals sometimes view things similarly, but other times have very different views in which they see the world. The ways in which they view the world are shaped by the experiences they have and through the social group they identify themselves to be a part of. Genderlect theory — "Male-female conversation is cross-cultural communication.
Masculine and feminine styles of discourse are best viewed as two distinct cultural dialects rather than as inferior or superior ways of speaking. Marxism — aims to explain class struggle and the basis of social relations through economics.
History of assimilation[ edit ] Forced assimilation was very common in the European colonial empires the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Voluntary assimilation has also been a part of history dating back to the Spanish Inquisition of the late 14th and 15th centuries, when many Muslims and Jews voluntarily converted to Roman Catholicism as a response to religious prosecution while secretly continuing their original practices.
Another example is when the Europeans moved to the United States. Intercultural communication thus needs to bridge the dichotomy between appropriateness and effectiveness: Valued rules, norms, and expectations of the relationship are not violated significantly. Valued goals or rewards relative to costs and alternatives are accomplished.
Competent communication is an interaction that is seen as effective in achieving certain rewarding objectives in a way that is also related to the context in which the situation occurs. As well as goal attainment is also a focus within intercultural competence and it involves the communicator to convey a sense of communication appropriateness and effectiveness in diverse cultural contexts.
The capacity to avoid ethnocentrism is the foundation of intercultural communication competence. People must be aware that to engage and fix intercultural communication there is no easy solution and there is not only one way to do so.
Listed below are some of the components of intercultural competence. A judgment that a person is competent is made in both a relational and situational context.
This means that competence is not defined as a single attribute, meaning someone could be very strong in one section and only moderately good in another. Situationally speaking competence can be defined differently for different cultures.
For example, eye contact shows competence in western cultures whereas, Asian cultures find too much eye contact disrespectful. The behaviours that lead to the desired outcome being achieved.
This has to do with emotional associations as they communicate interculturally. These two things play a part in motivation. Terms people use to explain themselves and their perception of the world. Behaving in ways that shows one understands the point of view of others Task role behaviour: Tolerance for unknown and ambiguity: The ability to react to new situations with little discomfort.
Responding to others in descriptive, non-judgmental ways.Unit 5. Intercultural Communication Page 46 through official languages or religious laws.
However, in societies composed of people from different cultural background, often the variety and size of those co-cultures allow their Another problem associated with ethnocentrism is a phenomenon called ethnopaulism, using name-. The course is developed to address the following areas of interest in understanding intercultural communication problems and how to develop intercultural communication competence and effectively manage intercultural conflicts.
Problems of Intercultural Communication ethnocentrism and prejudice. The goal of the session is to enable. INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION Intercultural communication is a study of cultural difference through communication. It is a form of global communication throughout the . Ethnocentrism has been the subject of much research; however, there are not many studies that make a connection between ethnocentrism and intercultural willingness to communicate.
Furthermore, the few that do are not set in the New Zealand context. Problems In Intercultural Communication Humans have been communicating since four million years.
On the other hand, the birth of culture is estimated to have taken place about 35, years ago. Intercultural communication (or cross-cultural communication) is a discipline that studies communication across different cultures and social groups, or how culture affects communication.
It describes the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from.